Sexual disorders include problems of sexual identity, sexual performance, and sexual aim.
There are three major catergories of sexual disorders:
gender identity disorders.
Sexual dysfunctions prevent or reduce an individual's enjoyment of normal sex and prevent or reduce the normal physiological changes brought on normally by sexual arousal.1 These dysfunctions can be classified by the phase of the sexual cycle in which they occur. It is important to keep in mind that the diagnosis of sexual dysfunction is made only when the disability persists.1 Any of them could occur occasionally or be caused by a temporary factor such as fatigue, sickness, alcohol, or drugs.
The Desire Phase
There are two types of dysfunctions that can occur during the desire phase. One is hypoactive desire, which is basically a disinterest in sexual activity. It results in a complete or almost complete lack of desire to have any type of sexual relation. This can often result in the participation in intercourse as a simple marital duty. 1
The second type is an aversion to sex. This is different from simple hypoactive sexual desire in that sexual activity actually repulses the person or makes them unusually apprehensive. This is most often the result of a traumatic sexual experience, such as molestation as a child or rape.
The Arousal Phase
Erectile dysfunction is the inability of males to attain or sustain erection long enough for coitus. The inability of females to become sexually aroused is sexual arousal disorder.
The Orgasm Phase
When males are unable to control ejaculation so that it occurs before satisfying sexual relations can take place with the partner, it is known as premature ejaculation. Ejaculatory incompetence is the lack or delay of reaching orgasm in males. The female version of this is inhibited female orgasm, the lack or delay of reaching orgasm in females.
Sexual Pain Disorders
There are two sexual pain disorders. Dyspareunia is when pain occurs during intercourse. This is predominantly a female complaint, but it does occur in males occasionally. Vaginismus is a female disorder in which involuntary spasmodic muscle contractions occur at the entrance to the vagina when an attempt is made to insert the penis. If intercourse is attempted despite these contractions, a painful sexual experience results.
Paraphilias are sexual behaviors in which unusual objects or scenarios are necessary to achieve sexual excitement.1 Eight paraphilias are recognized which are grouped into 3 broad catergories.
Preferences for Nonhuman Objects
There are two types of preferences for nonhuman objects: fetishism and transvestism.
Two different purposes seem to be associated with this act in different individuals. In one aspect the person seeks to intensify sexual excitement in intercourse with a partner by only partially dressing as a woman. In the other form, the male moves about in full female regailia, which suggests some type of gender identity problem but not necessarily homosexuality.
Preferences for Situations Causing Suffering
Sadism and Masochism
Preference for Nonconsenting Partners
The three types of this catergory of paraphilia are exhibitionism, voyeurism, and pedophilia. All three are considered crimes in this country and are almost entirely male crimes.
A gender identity disorder exists when a person, male or female, experiences confusion, vagueness or conflict in their feelings about their own sexual identity. 1 There is a struggle between the individual's anatomical sex gender and subjective feelings about choosing a masculine or feminine style of life.
Children can distinguish the difference between males and females by the age of two and by their fourth birthday can recognize the different roles that each sex plays in society. By the age of fifteen or so a person can relate to what arouses sexual feelings in themselves. Those with a gender identity disorder may have a problem with one or all of these aspects of identity.
HTML © 1999 Katrina Spoor